Civil engineering is concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of artificial environments and civil engineering seminar topics. It is a thriving industry that works to support both the public and private sectors. A civil engineer can specialize in various research areas, from structural engineering and environmental engineering to nanotechnology. This wide range guarantees graduates many career options. But, of course, the most popular is Civil engineering seminar topics. Here we discuss different 3 topics about civil engineering seminar topics. Such as Activated Carbon, Construction Management, & Construction roofs.
Most people associate civil engineering with modern technology. However, it existed 4000 years BC, when the first people began to create vehicles and build the Egyptian Pyramids and the Great Wall of China. The term “civil engineering,” however, is not that long ago. It has been in use since the early 1800s.
Civil engineering seminar topics: Activated Carbon
Activated Carbon porosity can trap gas and other substances to avoid absorption or accumulation in the digestive system. Therefore, it is used to alleviate a series of disorders related to the digestive system, as we will see better below.
1. Quality of activated carbon
In addition to the type of raw material used, a factor that determines the quality of the activated carbon is the activation process carried out in special furnaces or reactors. This activation process aims to increase the adsorbing capacity of the activated carbon, thus improving its purifying capacity.
- Activation with gas. The base consists of pre-carbonized material activated with a gas flow at a temperature of 700-1000 ° C, such as water vapor, with which the tiny pores already present in the carbon are enlarged. Others are opened larger. This is the procedure used in most cases since it allows the activated carbon with the best characteristics, i.e., with a more significant number of pores.
- Chemical activation. Initially, a raw material without pre-carbonization is mixed with certain chemical compounds.
Although the two processes are different, the result – although of different quality – is the same: a porous and highly active carbon structure with many pores. The more pores it has, the more harmful substances it can absorb. Activated carbon is available mainly in powder form and grains, pellets, bricks, and as an activated carbon fabric.
2. preparation of activated carbon
- A representative portion of the activated carbon is taken and prepared for testing by ASTM E 300.
- If using this method, the effect of adsorbents of different sizes is compared, then the size of the activated carbons is given special attention. Standard Test Method for Gas-Phase Adsorptionthan activated carbons with coarser grains. Therefore, one should not compare activated carbons with grains of different sizes along the limiting layer length. Standard Test Method for Gas-Phase Adsorption, regardless of the grain size. In many cases, dynamic activity is a more critical factor than the ultimate bed length.
- Since moisture pre-adsorbed by activated carbon strongly affects the adsorption of organic vapors and other gases, the moisture content in each sample of activated carbon tested by this method is determined according to ASTM D 2867. Commercially available activated carbons often contain up to 20% moisture (according to mass), which increases their adsorption capacity for chemically active gases.
- The ability to use activated carbon for a particular purpose is often established by determining its adsorption activity for carbon tetrachloride activity (CTA) according to ASTM D 3467. This parameter allows you to judge the total volume of micropores of an activated carbon sample but does not say anything about them. Distribution among pores of different sizes. At low adsorbate concentrations, the smallest micropores are most effective. In this regard, at low adsorbate concentrations, activated carbon with many micropores of tiny size can show better adsorption capacity than coal. The total volume of micropores is larger (high activity), but very small micropores are smaller. Figure 3 shows the situation when high adsorption activity of activated carbon is not preferable.
Civil engineering seminar topics: Construction Management
Construction is a complex multifunctional process that requires a highly responsible approach. A highly qualified employee should manage such a global process. Construction Management is one of the Civil engineering seminar topics.
The department deals with the allocation of human and financial resources, ensuring interaction between all those involved in the process, and taking into account all the factors that may affect the timing or quality of the construction.
- Construction management stages Construction management stages:
- Making decisions to minimize the budget,
- Distribution of work,
- Project approval,
- Conclusion of contracts with a contractor,
- Management of current activities,
- Providing the construction site with the necessary equipment and transport,
- Supervision over the conduct of each stage of construction,
- Assessment and acceptance of the quality of work,
- Control over finances and their use,
- Commissioning of the facility.
During the entire process, managers create financial reports, photo reports, progress reports, extracts, and other documents. The management process includes such organizations as general contractors, contractors to perform specialized work. The selection of qualified specialists is one of the most critical stages of management.
During the construction process, various changes established by government agencies can occur; in such cases, the speed of decision-making is critical. There are two types of management in construction: management of people and management of the means of production. The construction management bodies are in charge of the organizers of production. They, in turn, directly control the workers and the means of production (machines, mechanisms, laying, and erection of building structures). It is worth noting that construction management covers more than just construction operations. Construction management is also an extensive regulatory framework.
2. Goals and objectives of management
A dynamic system is a system in which there are constant transitions from one state to another. The construction itself belongs to a variant system since it is impossible to predict everything in the process.
Construction is also an open management system, as it actively interacts with the external environment. The external environment provides construction with materials, structures, machines, energy, transport, personnel, etc. Construction management has its laws. These include purposefulness of management, optimality, controllability, the ratio of management personnel and workers, etc.
For targeted management, it is necessary:
- Determine the goal of management,
- means and methods of achieving it,
- Formulate the management goal,
- for its understanding by the staff,
- Motivate workers to be willing to work actively to achieve the goal.
Classification of construction management objectives:
- By the time to achieve the goal (promising, current, operational),
- By importance (strategic, secondary),
- About the object (general and private),
By the degree of achievement of the result (final and intermediate). In the construction management process, they always try to achieve the best option. But, as you know, you cannot achieve your goal by any means, especially since it is almost impossible to find the ideal option in this matter.
Civil engineering seminar topics: Construction roofs
The roof is necessary to protect the structure from environmental factors, preserve heat and cold (depending on the season), and give the exterior of the object a particular aesthetic.
The main functions of the roof construction:
- drainage of rain and meltwater.
- The obstacle to the penetration of wind, dust, and dirt into the structure.
The most straightforward roof consists of rafters, Mauerlat, and puffs. Surface flooring is mandatory. These are tiles, slate, online with natural wood, wood-metal roofing.
1. What shape to choose roof slopes?
Private traders most often erect a hip or gable roof. This is because they require fewer materials to build and are cheaper than other types. According to the rules, the shape of such 2 slopes:
- For gable roofs, the slopes should be in the form of even rectangles.
- For a hip roof, the slopes are in a triangle or trapezoid (it is isosceles).
It seems that the requirements are optional, but the point is important here. Most often, roofing materials are rectangular. Such as metal sheets, slate, and other materials. Imagine that the slopes are not strictly rectangular, then wedges not covered by the material will remain on the roof. For a hip device, it will be even worse. When the building’s shape is not correct, there is always a lot of waste of sheets on the roof.
- Before starting work, all the elements for decoration, and these are valleys with gutters and areas where they will adjoin walls, dormer windows, need to be covered with galvanized sheets.
- Adhering to the 3rd rule, place the lower timber than the others on the crate, above all the boards.
- According to the 5th rule, if you make the roof insulated, you will need to arrange corridors for air circulation.
Civil engineering seminar topics: Types of popular roofs
What roof structures are most often erected by owners for their homes and offices? Everyone wants to save money on building materials and make their home pleasing to the eye. The following types of housing coatings are popular.
The easiest way is to make a sloping roof device. It is flat and rests on the walls of the house. The angle of inclination is minimal and can be no more than 2 or 3%. Water drains from it poorly, stagnates, and eventually flows inward. There are also advantages of such a device. On the plane, you can build a pool or break a flower garden. Some people manage to organize a court closed with a net for tennis fans or install exercise equipment.
Most often, the pitched shape is preferred by private traders. The slope is greater than 10% here. As a result, the water rolls down freely during rain, as the snow gradually melts and the water goes through the drainpipes. A similar roof device can be with or without an attic.
When the covering rests on walls of different heights, the roofing device is pitched. This is the best option for outbuildings. For construction, you can take various materials, and this option attracts many. However, it’s terrible that you can’t build an attic.
4. Gable: Civil Engineering Seminar Topics
In villages, you will notice that many houses are trying to be covered with such a roof. It will last a long time. The building will withstand strong gusts of wind, torrential rain, and heavy snowfall.
Mansard is a subspecies of a roof, but its slopes are broken. These kinks enlarge the attic, which turns into an attic room. It is quick to build such a roof device. So, they equip summer cottages with expensive cottages. For excellent thermal insulation, let the attic ceilings reach 2.2 m or higher.
Popular roofs constriction types
1. Hip: Civil Engineering Seminar Topics
Consider the device of a hipped roof. Two of them are triangular, and two are in the form of an isosceles trapezoid. The triangular ones are located at the fronts – these are the hips. Supports the beam structure. On such a roof, water or snow will not linger.
The slope here is at least 45 °. Masters give recommendations to arrange such roofs with gutters. They can be light or heavy. The latter is more reliable. They contribute to sound insulation and have a stabilizing effect on the whole house.
The slopes with a half-hip roof are truncated and triangular. They have a smaller slope than trapezoidal ones. If there are strong winds in your area, this design will suit your home. She is solid and reliable. Excellent resistance to gusty winds with rain or snow.
3. Hipped: Civil Engineering Seminar Topics
The device of the hipped roof is original. She is a subspecies of the hip. There can be more than two of them (for example, 4 or more) – depending on how the architect intended.
Civil engineering seminar topics: Roof with rafters hanging down
The rafter part of the leg from below sometimes crawls out beyond the wall contour. It seems to be hanging in midair. After all, snow creates a significant load in winter. In a strong wind from the side, the rafters will stretch as much as possible, and the Mauerlat or the beam from below will shrink.
If you build a large log house, then props will be required for the roof. Otherwise, it may bend in places. The emphasis should not be tight. Builders have come up with a “grandmother” long ago. In this rafter system, there is a suspension, and it is capable of stretching. Farms are now any constructions. The nodes here are shrinking and stretching.
Such rafters are called imposing rafters, which redistribute the load to all roof nodes. They are supported on a wooden harness, which has a Mauer last with a rafter. If the building is small, such rafters are suitable for it. When you build layered rafters, you can use the crossbar. It will help tighten the rafter legs. This will increase the spans to 8 m and a little more. You use 2 supports, and you can already cover the span of 16 m.