Biosphere reserves are areas of biodiversity. Now they are no longer the simplest plants and animals, but human settlements are covered up. So, these settlements mainly depend on their survival characteristics. In short, this is a natural habitat that includes a national park or nature reserve on one side of the buffer zone. Let’s talk about the biosphere reserve broadly before knowing the Biosphere Reserves in India.
The Biosphere Reserve (BR) is a global designation declared by UNESCO on large tracts of land or coastal/marine ecosystems or their mixtures to expand natural and cultural landscapes. So, the International Coordinating Committee (ICC) of the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Program designated a “biosphere reserve” for the herbaceous area at the first assembly held in Paris in November 1971.
Do you already know that India has 18 biosphere reserves, 11 of which are part of the World Biosphere Reserve Network and have been reorganized as important biodiversity areas on a global scale?
What are Biosphere Reserves?
Like UNESCO, the Biosphere Reserve is studying sustainable locations. However, they are sites that examine interdisciplinary procedures to acquire expertise and deal with modifications and interactions between society and ecosystems, including war prevention and biodiversity control.
So, they offer nearby solutions to the grim international situation and are composed of terrestrial, marine, and coastal ecosystems. However, every online website promotes solutions to coordinate the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
These are nominated with the help of a national government and are under the sovereign jurisdiction of their state. So, after the designation. The biosphere reserves will not be under the jurisdiction of national sovereignty. Still, they will show their thoughts and ideas to the whole country. So, the local and the world in the World, Biosphere Reserve Network (WNBR).
The distribution of biosphere reserves worldwide is as follows:
The first biosphere reserve of the arena was established in 1979, and the community of biosphere reserves seen at that time has expanded to 703 of the 124 countries in the arena. India currently has 18 biosphere reserves.
In Europe and North America-302, sites in 38 countries
In Africa-79, places in 29 countries
So, In Asia -157 locations in 24 countries
In Latin America and the Caribbean-130 sites in 21 countries
In the Arab States-33 areas in 12 countries
Criteria for designation of Biosphere Reserves
Before knowing the Biosphere Reserves in India, we’ll know the criteria for the designation of Biosphere Reserves. A site must incorporate a central area that effectively includes and minimizes the price of nature conservation. So, the central location should be a general area of biogeographical units and should be large enough to maintain viable populations in the atmosphere that represent all nutrients.
The controlling agency ensures the participation/cooperation of neighborhood groups for a detailed understanding and reporting to link the protection of biodiversity with the improvement of socio-economics even when dealing with and contain conflicts. The region’s ability to maintain traditional tribal or rural housing models to use the environment harmoniously.
The Functions of a Biosphere Reserve
We’ll have to know the function of a biosphere reserve for the idea of the Biosphere Reserves in India.
Each biosphere reserve should meet three coordination functions:
Conservation function: preservation of genetic resources, species, ecosystems, and landscapes.
Development function: to sell sustainable human and financial improvement.
Logistic aid function: to offer aid for studies and to read the problems of conservation and sustainable improvement.
Three zones of the Biosphere
Biosphere reserves have three unified zones that purpose to satisfy three harmonizing and at the same time reinforcing functions:
1. Core Zone:
It may also include unique plants and animals. The core area frequently preserves wild families of financial species and constitutes an essential genetic resource bank of significant clinical interest.
The middle area is an included area, such as a national park or nature reserve/area usually included under the Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972. The storage in this area is not subject to human interference. Although it is known that interference is an integral part of the environmental function, the central zone should avoid loosening due to human pressure outside the system.
2. Buffer Zone:
In this area, the management of the buffer zone (adjacent to or surrounding the core area, uses, and activities) assists in protecting the core area in its natural state.
So, it consists of restoration, regional tourism, fishing, grazing, etc., which might be authorized to lessen its impact on the middle region. Human activities, if the BR contains herbs, then even if it no longer harms ecological diversity, it is likely to retain human activities.
3. Transition Zone:
The transition zone is the biosphere reserve which is the outermost part. This is a cooperative department in which protection information and control capabilities are used for the biosphere reserve. So, this consists of settlements, croplands, controlled forests and places for in-depth activity, and different financial uses of the region’s traits.
How many Biosphere Reserves in India?
There are 18 biosphere reserves in India:
1. Achankamar- Amarkantak
It’s covering part of the Anupur and Dindori districts of Madhya Pradesh and part of the Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh.
2. Cold Desert
So, It’s in Pin Valley National Park and surrounding areas, Chandratal, Sarchu, and Kibber wildlife in Himachal State.
It’s in Peppala and Shindeni Wildlife Sanctuary and its surrounding areas in Kerala.
4. Great Nicobar
So, It’s in the Southernmost islands of Andaman and Nicobar.
It’s in Siang and part of Dibang Valley in Arunachal Pradesh.
6. Dibru- Saikhowa
So, It’s part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia Districts in Assam.
7. Gulf of Mannar
It’s a part of India in Tamil Naru and Sri Lanka.
So, It’s in Part Wayanad, Bandipur, Nagarhole, Nilambur, Madumalai, Silent Valley, and Siruvani hills in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka.
9. Nanda Devi
It’s part of Chamoli, Pithoragarh, and Bageshwar districts in Uttarakhand.
So, It’s part of Kanchenjunga hills and Sikkim.
It’s part of Garo Hills in Meghalaya.
SO,It’s part of Bongaigaon, Kokrajhar,
Nalbari, Kamprup, Barpeta, and Daran districts in Assam.
So, It’s part of Katchchh, Rajkot, Surendra Nagar, and Gujarat State districts in Patan Civil.
It’s part of the delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra river system in West Bengal.
15. Seshachalam Hills
So, It’s covering Andhra Pradesh districts in Chittor and Kadapa.
It’s part of the Panna and Chhattarpur districts in Madhya Pradesh.
So, It’s part of the Mayurbhanj district in Orissa.
18. Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve
It’s part of the Betul, Hoshangabad, and Chhindwara districts in Madhya Pradesh. We’ll now know the International status of Biosphere Reserves after knowing the Biosphere Reserve in India.
International Status of Biosphere Reserve
UNESCO has added the name “Biosphere Reserve” to natural medicine areas to limit the struggle between improvement and conservation. However, the biosphere reserve is nominated with the assistance of a national agency that meets the minimum standards under the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve Program. So, Globally, there are 703 biosphere reserves in 124 international locations, such as 20 cross-border sites.
Man and Biosphere Programme
The UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere Program (MAB) was established in 1971 as an intergovernmental clinical program to develop the relationship between humans and the environment to establish a medical foundation.
The Man and Biosphere Project combines natural medicine and social sciences, economics, and training to enhance human livelihoods and benefit-sharing and protect herbal medicines and controllable ecosystems, thus selling revolutionary methods to socially and culturally adaptable and Environmentally sustainable financial improvement methods.
That UNESCO protects
WNBR, the world network of biosphere reserves, has coverage of selected areas of the world. It includes a colorful and interactive website community. It promotes the harmonious integration of man and nature uniquely to achieve sustainable development. So, it can nominate an area equal to or equal to the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Program (MAB) if the United States declares a place to be a biosphere reserve. However, the biosphere reserve will input into the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) if UNESCO accepts the notion of the authorities.
The 11 of the 18 biosphere reserves in the United States are part of the World Biosphere Reserve Network with the addition of the Kanchenjunga Biosphere Reserve, which is based entirely on the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme list. So, this decision was taken on the 30th session of the International Coordinating Council of the United Nations Human and Biosphere Reserve Program held in Palembang, Indonesia, in July 2018.
The UNESCO Protected lists of Biosphere Reserves in India are given below:
- So, Gulf of Mannar
- So, Nanda Devi
- So, Achanakmar – Amarkantak
- Great Nicobar
- Khangchendzonga (Added beneath neath Man and Biosphere Reserve Program in 2018)
India’s National Biosphere Reserve Program started in 1986. So, it aimed to provide a broader foundation for the protection of various housing assets and their ecological foundation, which is similar to the comprehensive shelter community system that has been established. However, it is this environmental scope that makes India one of the large-scale regions in the world. The direct effort is to designate at least one biosphere reserve in each biogeographic province.
List of potential sites
For the Biosphere Reserve in India,
The Ministry of Forests and Environment selects the following list:
- So, Abujmarh, Chhattisgarh
- Andaman and Nicobar, North Islands
- So, Chintapalli, Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh
- Kanha, Madhya Pradesh
- Kovalam, Kerala
- Lakshadweep Islands, Lakshadweep
- Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat
- Phawngpui (Blue Mountain), Mizoram
- Namdapha, Arunachal Pradesh
- So, Singhbhum, Jharkhand
- Tawang and West Kameng, Arunachal Pradesh
- So, Thar Desert, Rajasthan
- Sanjay Gandhi National Park & Tadoba National Park, Maharashtra.
Through participatory dialogue, UNESCO’s recognition of poverty reduction and human well-being, appreciation of cultural values. So, the ability of society to respond to changes promote the non-violent integration of man and nature to achieve sustainable development.
Considering that in 1986, the Indian government is implementing a plan called “Biosphere Reserve,” in which the Northeast countries and the 3 Himalayan states will provide economic assistance to different countries at a ratio of 90:10 and a ratio of 60:40. So, the status of maintenance, development, and improvement of the project. Through the Central MAB Committee, the State Government prepares the Management Action Plan that is accepted and monitored.
1. What is the World Biosphere Reserve Network?
However, the World Biosphere Reserve Network of the Man and Biosphere Programme includes a dynamic and interactive community of excellent community sites contributing to the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals. So, it promotes North-South cooperation and South-South cooperation, and by sharing expertise, replacing reports, building potential, and selling good practices, it represents a unique device for global collaboration.
2. According to the list, biosphere Reserves in India are the largest and the smallest Biosphere Reserve?
In India, the Gulf of Kachchh is the largest Biosphere reserve in Gujarat, and Dibru Saikhowa is the smallest Biosphere Reserve in Assam.
3. Who proclaims the Biosphere reserve in India?
The national or central government announces India’s biosphere reserves through a nomination under the UNESCO Man and Biosphere (MAB) program.
4. In biosphere reserves and national parks, what is the difference between them?
The National Park is a land reserved area reserved by the government, blanketed from industrialization, human exploitation, and pollution. Because the biosphere reserve is designated to protect the Biosphere source and develop the link between humans and the environment.
5. Which is India’s first Biosphere Reserve?
However, the first Biosphere Reserve in India is the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, part of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Kerala.
6. What is the Man and Biosphere Programme?
With the help of UNESCO, the Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in 1971. So, the plan laid a systematic foundation for the development of the relationship between humans and the environment.